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|630||Heraclius restores the True Cross, which he has recaptured from the Persians.|
|1556||Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, is burned at the stake at Oxford after retracting the last of seven recantations that same day.|
|1617||Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe) dies of either small pox or pneumonia while in England with her husband, John Rolfe.|
|1788||Almost the entire city of New Orleans, Louisiana, is destroyed by fire.|
|1806||Lewis and Clark begin their trip home after an 8,000 mile trek of the Mississippi basin and the Pacific Coast.|
|1865||The Battle of Bentonville, N.C. ends, marking the last Confederate attempt to stop Union General William Sherman.|
|1851||Emperor Tu Duc orders that Christian priests are to put to death.|
|1858||British forces in India lift the siege of Lucknow, ending the Indian Mutiny.|
|1906||Ohio passes a law that prohibits hazing by fraternities.|
|1908||Frenchman Henri Farman carries a passenger in a bi-plane for the first time.|
|1910||The U.S. Senate grants ex-President Teddy Roosevelt an annual pension of $10,000.|
|1918||The Germans launch the ‘Michael’ offensive, better remembered as the First Battle of the Somme.|
|1928||President Calvin Coolidge presents the Congressional Medal of Honor to Charles Lindbergh, a captain in the US Army Air Corps Reserve, for making the first solo trans-Atlantic flight. On June 11, 1927, Lindbergh had received the first Distinguished Flying Cross ever awarded.|
|1939||Singer Kate Smith records “God Bless America” for Victor Records.|
|1941||The last Italian post in East Libya, North Africa, falls to the British.|
|1951||Secretary of Defense George C. Marshall reports that the U.S. military has doubled to 2.9 million since the start of the Korean War.|
|1963||Alcatraz Island, the federal penitentiary in San Francisco Bay, California, closes.|
|1965||The United States launches Ranger 9, last in a series of unmanned lunar explorations.|
|1971||Two U.S. platoons in Vietnam refuse their orders to advance.|
|1975||As North Vietnamese forces advance, Hue and other northern towns in South Vietnam are evacuated.|
|1980||President Jimmy Carter announces to the U.S. Olympic Team that they will not participate in the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow as a boycott against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.|
|1984||A Soviet submarine crashes into the USS Kitty Hawk off the coast of Japan.|
Chess errors come in a few different flavors, these experts say. The most common is what we’ll call the Bad Setup. When you set up a chessboard, you’re supposed to orient it so that the square nearest to each player’s right side is light-colored. (There’s even a mnemonic for this—“right is light.”) Next, when you array the pieces, the white queen goes on white, and the black queen goes on black. “When I teach six-year-old girls, I say ‘the queen’s shoes have to match her dress!’” says Klein.That's only the beginning of the grievances chess players have with movies. Read about quite a few others, some with video evidence, at Atlas Obscura.
Six-year-olds may get this, but filmmakers often do not. Along with The Seventh Seal, movies that suffer from Bad Setups include Blade Runner, Austin Powers, From Russia with Love, The Shawshank Redemption, and Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls. Shaft and What’s New Pussycat may not have much in common, but they do both feature backwards chessboards.
Indeed, it seems that sometime early in Souder's career, someone called on the bureau to come up with a systematic way to do handwriting and typewriter analysis, probably to detect fraud. Souder, whose specialty was taking exacting measurements and making precise comparisons, was a perfect fit.Souder sounds like the inspiration for a comic book series! Read about Souder's secret work at National Geographic.
The notebooks show that over the years, Souder worked on all kinds of cases brought to the bureau by the Post Office, the Department of the Treasury, and various other government bodies. In addition to appearing in court as an expert witness, he helped pioneer some of the techniques used in modern forensics in America.
He used a recently invented microscope for comparing bullets to see if they might have come from the same gun. He advised the founder of the FBI's forensic lab. For the Lindbergh case, he analyzed the handwriting on the ransom notes and compared them to suspects' writing, finding a match with Bruno Hauptmann, who was eventually convicted and executed.