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I Haz Cheezburger ... !
The Truth Hurts!
|585 BC||A solar eclipse interrupts a battle outside Sardis in western Turkey between Medes and Lydians. The battle ends in a draw.|
|1805||Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned in Milan, Italy.|
|1830||Congress authorizes Indian removal from all states to the western Prairie.|
|1863||The 54th Massachusetts, a regiment of African-American recruits, leaves Boston, headed for Hilton Head, South Carolina.|
|1859||The French army launches a flanking attack on the Austrian army in Northern France.|
|1871||The Paris commune is suppressed by troops from Versailles.|
|1900||Britain annexes the Orange Free State in South Africa.|
|1940||Belgium surrenders to Germany.|
|1953||Melody, the first animated 3-D cartoon in Technicolor, premiers.|
|1961||Amnesty International, a human rights organization, is founded.|
In many ways, Marsden fits the profile of a daring female explorer of the Victorian age. She went to Siberia to find a particular medicinal herb that she thought could cure leprosy, and to meet sufferers of the disease living in the Russian forest. Her advocacy for leprosy patients has since made her a local hero—there’s even a very large diamond named after her—but in her own time, her adventurousness, coupled with gossip about her personal life and sexual preference, brought her only infamy. After she returned from Siberia, she was vilified as a fabulist and an embezzler who had betrayed people who trusted her. Her critics questioned her motives for going to Sosnovka at all: What was she really after? Or was she just running away from something?Read about Marsden's 11-month Siberian expedition, and the scandals that followed her afterward, at Atlas Obscura.
Perhaps the most famous use of Marsh’s test was in the trial of Marie Lafarge in 1840, in which the defendant stood accused of poisoning her husband. Young Marie had entered an arranged marriage with Charles Lafarge believing him to be a wealthy, cultured businessman, and when she found out he was in fact a boorish clod with a run-down chateau, rough sexual habits and substantial debt, she got to putting arsenic in his food. (Friends mentioned that they’d heard her asking casually about mourning fashions: How long did you have to wear black, again?) By the time Charles came to realize his wife’s devotion to home cooking was not a loving gesture, it was too late.At the time, people were skeptical of forensic scientists, particularly when a defendant's life was at stake. Testimony about test results wasn't enough; they wanted to see the test performed. So what was left of the victim's body was brought into the court for the Marsh test, resulting in trial spectators buying 500 bottles of smelling salts. Read what happened at that trial, and how the results influenced forensic science, at Atlas Obscura.
A back-and-forth festival of forensic testing ensued: local scientists first analyzed the dead man’s beverages, stomach tissue and vomit; and while they claimed to have found arsenic, their glassware broke during testing. Moreover, defense counsel was upset at use of outdated techniques, and called in Mateu Orfila, dean of the Paris Faculty of Medicine and the era’s premier toxicologist, who confirmed that only the Marsh test would be credible in court.