Welcome to Today's Edition of
Carolina Naturally is read in 210 countries around the world daily.
No Pants ... !
|1236||Henry III marries Eleanor of Provence.|
|1526||Francis of France, held captive by Charles V for a year, signs the Treaty of Madrid, giving up most of his claims in France and Italy.|
|1797||Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy.|
|1858||Emperor Napoleon and Empress Eugenie escape unhurt after an Italian assassin throws a bomb at their carriage as they travel to the Paris Opera.|
|1864||Confederate President Jefferson Davis writes to General Joseph E. Johnson, observing that troops may need to be sent to Alabama or Mississippi.|
|1911||The USS Arkansas, the largest U.S. battleship, is launched from the yards of the New York Shipbuilding Company.|
|1915||The French abandon five miles of trenches to the Germans near Soissons.|
|1916||British authorities seize German attaché Franz von Papen’s financial records confirming espionage activities in the U.S.|
|1917||A Provisional Parliament is established in Poland.|
|1920||Berlin is placed under martial law as 40,000 radicals rush the Reichstag; 42 are dead and 105 are wounded.|
|1942||President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders all aliens in the U.S. to register with the government.|
|1943||Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Charles DeGaulle meet at Casablanca to discuss the direction of the war.|
|1943||Italian occupation authorities refuse to deport Jews living in their territories in France.|
|1969||A blast on the U.S. carrier Enterprise in the Pacific results in 24 dead and 85 injured.|
|1980||The United Nations votes 104-18 to deplore the Soviet aggression in Afghanistan.|
|2000||A UN tribunal sentences 5 Bosnian Croats to prison for up to 25 years; they were charged with killing some 100 Muslims in a Bosnian village in 1993.|
|2004||The Republic of Georgia restores the “five cross flag” as its national flag after some 500 years of disuse.|
|2005||Huygens, a probe, lands on Saturn’s moon Titan.|
|2010||Yemen declares war on the al-Qaeda terrorist group.|
|2011||Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, former president of Tunisia, flees to Saudi Arabia after a series of demonstrations against his regime.|
In this article, we argue that the mafia arose as a response to an exogenous shock in the demand for oranges and lemons, following Lind's discovery in the late eighteenth century that citrus fruits cured scurvy. More specifically, we claim that mafia appeared in locations where producers made high profits from citrus production for overseas export. Operating in an environment with a weak rule of law, the mafia protected citrus production from predation and acted as intermediaries between producers and exporters. Using original data from a parliamentary inquiry in 1881–1886 on Sicilian towns, the Damiani Inquiry, we show that mafia presence is strongly related to the production of oranges and lemons. The results hold when different data sources and several controls are employed.Is this why there are so many oranges in The Godfather? You can read the entire paper here.
Giant sloths, along with megafauna like gomphotheres and glyptodons, feasted on whole avocados and spread their seeds over South America. These enormous creatures’ digestive systems could process large seeds, and avocados benefited. When pooped out, far from their parent trees, the seeds could sprout and grow without competition for water and sunlight. It was a good deal all around, and it likely resulted in avocados as we know them: fatty and large-pitted, all the better to attract huge sloths.While many other fruit plants died out due to changes in conditions, avocados were everywhere, and survived in pockets of perfect climate. Read more about the megafauna that gave us guacamole at Atlas Obscura.