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|1500||The Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral reaches the coast of Brazil and claims the region for Portugal.|
|1586||Sir Francis Drake launches a surprise attack on the heavily fortified city of Santo Domingo in Hispaniola.|
|1698||The Abenaki Indians and the Massachusetts colonists sign a treaty halting hostilities between the two.|
|1766||The Old Pretender, son of James III, dies.|
|1788||The Times, London’s oldest running newspaper, publishes its first edition.|
|1808||A U.S. law banning the import of slaves comes into effect, but is widely ignored.|
|1824||The Camp Street Theatre opens as the first English-language playhouse in New Orleans.|
|1830||William Lloyd Garrison publishes the first edition of a journal entitled The Liberator, calling for the complete and immediate emancipation of all slaves in the United States.|
|1863||Confederate General Braxton Bragg and Union General William Rosecrans readjust their troops as the Battle of Murfreesboro continues.|
|1863||Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing the slaves in the Confederacy.|
|1891||Facilities open on Ellis Island, New York, to cope with the vast flood of immigrants coming into the United States.|
|1907||The Pure Food and Drug Act becomes law in the United States.|
|1915||The German submarine U-24 sinks the British battleship Formidable in the English Channel.|
|1918||The first gasoline pipeline begins operation along the 40 miles and three inches of pipe from Salt Creek to Casper, Wyoming.|
|1923||Sadi Lecointe sets a new aviation speed record flying an average of 208 mph at Istres.|
|1937||At a party at the Hormel Mansion in Minnesota, a guest wins $100 for naming a new canned meat–Spam.|
|1945||In Operation Bodenplatte, German planes attack American forward air bases in Europe. This is the last major offensive of the Luftwaffe.|
|1959||Fidel Castro seizes power in Cuba as General Fulgencio Batista flees.|
|1986||As the United States builds its strength in the Mediterranean, Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi threatens to retaliate if attacked.|
When Long did this, he had already used ether on a friend, writes anesthesiologist Almiro dos Reis Júnior, to remove infected cysts from his neck. Long had experience with the substance from so-called “ether parties” where young people would knock each other out for fun. However, the public was skeptical of knocking people unconscious during surgery, so Long stopped using ether in his clinic. “But Long still believed in the importance of anesthesia and administered ether to his wife during the birth of his second child in 1845 and other subsequent deliveries, thus undoubtedly becoming the pioneer of obstetric analgesia,” writes dos Reis Júnior.Both ether and chloroform had been used recreationally, and both are dangerous if the amount isn't just right. But the relief from the pain of childbirth caught on rapidly, especially after Queen Victoria gave birth using anesthesia. Read about the early days of anesthesia at Smithsonian.
Now, in addition porcelain from China, glazed in blue and iron-red floral and figurative designs, tea caddies were made out of German porcelain, stoneware, Jasperware, creamware, and cauliflower ware, which was a type of creamware that was molded and glazed to resemble the vegetable. Tea caddies were made of Japanned papier-mâché and also wood, from chests to fanciful fruit forms—pears, apples, pineapples, and pumpkins were popular shapes. “They are my favorites,” Mark says. “I think the fruit forms are just the best. They’re totally charming, and when you hold them, they have a warmth that porcelain does not.”Read more about tea caddies and the global tea trade that made them necessary at Collectors Weekly.
The fruit forms also lack the provenance that most ceramic tea caddies enjoy. “There’s a real mystery to those pieces,” he says. “There’s no evidence of a manufacturer’s mark on them, which gives credence to the notion that they were homemade.” Less charming is the lead-lining inside the fruit form. “Using lead seems astonishing to us, but lead protected the tea from moisture.”
The Fishing Cat is in big trouble in Southeast Asia. After extensive camera trap surveys in Java failed to turn any up there is a fear that they have gone extinct in all of Indonesia (they persist in low numbers elsewhere).The fishing cat pictured above lives in a zoo. Read this year's list, and the methodology and philosophy behind the list at Living Alongside Wildlife.