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|439||The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa.|
|1216||King John of England dies at Newark and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.|
|1448||The Ottoman Sultan Murat II defeats Hungarian General Janos Hunyadi at Kosovo, Serbia.|
|1466||The peace of Torun ends the war between the Teutonic knights and their own disaffected subjects in Prussia.|
|1739||England declares war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The war is known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear because the Spanish coast guards cut off the ear of British seaman Robert Jenkins.|
|1781||Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis surrenders to George Washington and Count de Rochambeau at Yorktown, Va. Cornwallis surrenders 7,157 troops, including sick and wounded, and 840 sailors, along with 244 artillery pieces. Losses in this battle had been light on both sides. The Revolutionary War is effectively ended.|
|1812||Napoleon Bonaparte begins his retreat from Moscow.|
|1848||John “The Pathfinder” Fremont moves out from near Westport, Missouri, on his fourth Western expedition–a failed attempt to open a trail across the Rocky Mountains along the 38th parallel.|
|1873||Yale, Princeton, Columbia and Rutgers universities draft the first code of football rules.|
|1914||The German cruiser Emden captures her thirteenth Allied merchant ship in 24 days.|
|1917||The first doughnut is fried by Salvation Army volunteer women for American troops in France during World War I.|
|1942||The Japanese submarine I-36 launches a floatplane for a reconnaissance flight over Pearl Harbor. The pilot and crew report on the ships in the harbor, after which the aircraft is lost at sea.|
|1949||The People’s Republic of China is formally proclaimed.|
|1950||The North Korean capital of Pyongyang is captured by U.N. troops.|
|1954||Egypt and Britain conclude a pact on the Suez Canal, ending 72 years of British military occupation. Britain agrees to withdraw its 80,000-man force within 20 months, and Egypt agrees to maintain freedom of canal navigation.|
|1960||Canada and the United States agree to undertake a joint Columbia River project to provide hydroelectric power and flood control.|
|1973||President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.|
|1987||In retaliation for Iranian attacks on ships in the Persian Gulf, the U. S. navy disables three of Iran’s offshore oil platforms.|
|1988||The British government bans TV and radio interviews with members of the Irish political group Sinn Fein and 11 paramilitary groups.|
|1989||The 1975 conviction of the Guildford Four is overturned by British courts; the 4 men had been convicted in the 1974 Guildford pub bombings.|
|2003||Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II for her work among “the poorest of the poor” in India.|
|2005||Former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein’s trial for crimes against humanity begins in Baghdad.|
As Mata Hari aged and her dancing career began to wind down, she was still in demand as a courtesan and enjoyed the company of rich and powerful men. The outbreak of World War I in 1914 did not alter her extravagance. She seemed not to grasp that ordinary people resented her ostentatious lifestyle while French families were doing without basics: coal, clothing, and foodstuffs. They were sending their fathers, husbands, brothers, and sons to be killed in the war while she continued to live in comfort and plenty.So Mata Hari was paid to be a German spy, but never spied for them. Later, she was recruited to spy for the French, but was never paid, nor was her efforts taken seriously. It was the French military that arrested and convicted her for spying for the Germans. An article at National Geographic explains how Mata Hari's trial was more about her immoral lifestyle than her actual crimes.
Mata Hari continued to travel, which brought her to the attention of the counterespionage world. The fall of 1915 found her in The Hague, where the exotic dancer was paid a visit by Karl Kroemer, the honorary German consul of Amsterdam. He offered her 20,000 francs—equivalent to $61,000 in today’s currency—to spy for Germany. She accepted the funds, which she viewed as repayment for her furs, jewels, and money the Germans had seized when war broke out. Even so, she did not accept the job.