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|1468||Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano succeed their father, Piero de Medici, as rulers of Florence, Italy.|
|1762||France cedes to Spain all lands west of the Mississippi–the territory known as Upper Louisiana.|
|1818||Illinois is admitted into the Union as the 21st state.|
|1800||The French defeat the Austrian army at the Battle of Hohenlinden, near Munich.|
|1847||Frederick Douglass and Martin R. Delaney establish the North Star, an anti-slavery paper.|
|1862||Confederate raiders attack a Federal forage train on the Hardin Pike near Nashville, Tenn.|
|1863||Confederate General James Longstreet moves his army east and north toward Greeneville. This withdrawal marks the end of the Fall Campaign in Tennessee.|
|1864||Major General William Tecumseh Sherman meets with slight resistance from Confederate troops at Thomas Station on his march to the sea.|
|1906||The U.S. Supreme Court orders Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) leaders extradited to Idaho for trial in the Steunenberg murder case.|
|1915||The United States expels German attaches on spy charges.|
|1916||French commander Joseph Joffre is dismissed after his failure at the Somme. General Robert Nivelle is the new French commander-in-chief.|
|1918||The Allied Conference ends in London where they decide that Germany must pay for the war.|
|1925||The League of Nations orders Greece to pay an indemnity for the October invasion of Bulgaria.|
|1926||British reports claim that German soldiers are being trained in the Soviet Union.|
|1950||The Chinese close in on Pyongyang, Korea, and UN forces withdraw southward.|
|1965||The National Council of Churches asks the United States to halt the massive bombings in North Vietnam.|
|1977||The State Department proposes the admission of 10,000 more Vietnamese refugees to the United States.|
|1979||Eleven are dead and eight injured in a mad rush to see a rock band (The Who) at a concert in Cincinnati, Ohio.|
|1984||Toxic gas leaks from a Union Carbide plant and results in the deaths of thousands in Bhopal, India.|
|1989||George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev announce the official end to the Cold War at a meeting in Malta.|
|1992||A test engineer for Sema Group sends the world’s first text message, using a personal computer and the Vodafone network.|
|1997||Representatives of 121 nations sign the Ottawa Treaty prohibiting the manufacture or deployment of antipersonnel landmines; the People’s Republic of China, the US and the USSR do not sign.|
|2005||The first manned rocket-powered aircraft delivery of US Mail takes place in Mojave, Cal.|
|2009||A suicide bombing in Mogadishu, Somalia, kills 25 people, including three ministers of the Transitional Federal Government.|
The landowners of Peru, though, still wanted cheap labor for their sugar and cotton plantations, for rich guano mines, and for the expansion of the railroad. The government eased the way for former slaveholders with financial grants and subsidies for bringing new indentured laborers to the country. Many of those new contracted workers came from China, where political unrest had created a population of displaced people in need of work. Between 1849 and 1874 around 100,000 Chinese contract laborers, mostly from the province of Guangdong, sailed to Peru under restrictive labor contracts that tied them to landowners from years.So why were the remains of Chinese laborers discovered in an ancient Peruvian pyramid?:
By 1876, the Chinese community in the city had grown so much that it accounted for about 10 percent of total population. In the city, they worked as servants, artisans, or small business people, running stores and restaurants in what would become Lima’s Chinatown. A select few Chinese immigrants became planters and merchants themselves.
The remains discovered on the Lima pyramid reflect both the improving conditions for Chinese laborers and their exclusion from parts of Peruvian society. As their economic conditions improved, Chinese families were able to afford more than simple shrouds for their dead. But authorities would not have Chinese people buried in Catholic graveyards, and the ancient pyramids “had a sacred association that might have made them attractive places for burial by Chinese laborers,” Roxana Gomez, who led the archaeological team, told Reuters.