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|1523||In Switzerland, Ulrich Zwingli publishes his 67 Articles, the first manifesto of the Zurich Reformation which attacks the authority of the Pope.|
|1783||William Pitt the Younger becomes the youngest Prime Minister of England at age 24.|
|1847||New Mexico Governor Charles Bent is slain by Pueblo Indians in Taos.|
|1861||Georgia secedes from the Union.|
|1902||The magazine “L’Auto” announces the new Tour de France.|
|1915||The first German air raids on Great Britain inflict minor casualties.|
|1923||The French announce the invention of a new gun that has a firing range of 56 miles.|
|1931||The Wickersham Committee issues a report asking for revisions in the dry law, but no repeal.|
|1937||Howard Hughes flies from Los Angeles to New York in seven hours and 22 minutes.|
|1937||In the Soviet Union, the Council of People’s Commissars is formed under Molotov.|
|1945||The Red Army captures Lodz, Krakow, and Tarnow.|
|1947||The French open a drive on Hue, Indochina.|
|1949||The Chiang Government moves the capital of China to Canton.|
|1950||Communist Chinese leader Mao recognizes the Republic of Vietnam.|
|1968||Cambodia charges that the United States and South Vietnam have crossed the border and killed three Cambodians.|
|1981||The United States and Iran sign an accord on a hostage release in Algiers.|
|1983||The new catholic code expands women’s rights in the cult.|
In 1897, Kunz wrote for the American Journal of Science, and detailed the specific and ultimate coloration of sapphires from the Yogo Gulch region. He wrote that the deviation in color of the stones were “varying from light blue to quite dark blue, including some of the true ‘cornflower’ blue tint so much prized in the sapphires of the Ceylon… Some of them are ‘peacock blue’ and some dichroic, showing a deeper tint in one direction than in another; and some of the ‘cornflower’ gems are equal to any of the Ceylonese, which they strongly resemble,—more than they do those of the Cashmere.”Yogo Sapphires made a splash -and a lot of money. The Yogo Gulch area is still mined for sapphires today. Read about them at The Daily Beast.
|1486||Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York.|
|1701||Frederick III, the elector of Brandenburg, becomes king of Prussia.|
|1778||Captain James Cook discovers the Hawaiian Islands, naming them the ‘Sandwich Islands’ after the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Sandwich.|
|1836||Jim Bowie arrives at the Alamo to assist its Texas defenders.|
|1862||John Tyler, former president of the United States, is buried at Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, VA.|
|1902||The Isthmus Canal Commission in Washington shifts its support from Nicaragua to Panama as a favored canal site.|
|1911||Aviator Eugene Ely performs the first successful take off and landing from a ship in San Francisco Bay.|
|1916||The Russians force the Turkish 3rd Army back to Erzurum.|
|1942||General MacArthur repels the Japanese in Bataan. The United States takes the lead in the Far East war crime trials.|
|1945||The German Army launches its second attempt to relieve the besieged city of Budapest from the advancing Red Army.|
|1948||Gandhi breaks a 121-hour fast after halting Muslim-Hindu riots.|
|1962||The United States begins spraying foliage with herbicides in South Vietnam, in order to reveal the whereabouts of Vietcong guerrillas.|
|1964||Plans are disclosed for the World Trade Center in New York.|
|1978||The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) isolate the cause of Legionnaire’s disease.|
|1991||Iraq starts firing Scud missiles at Israeli cities.|
Customs agents found 475 Equanil tablets and 688 Dexedrine capsules stashed in his guitar case and threw him in jail. Cash spent a night in jail and, two months later, plead guilty to the possession of illegal drugs.The National States Rights Party, an Alabama white supremacist group, republished the photo in its newspaper, The Thunderbolt, with an article that dripped with racist rhetoric. The money generated by Cash’s hit records, it claimed, went “to scum like Johnny Cash to keep them supplied with dope and negro women.”
He got off with a deferred sentence and a $1,000 fine—and had no idea that, as he walked down the courthouse steps in El Paso, Texas, with his wife Vivian, he was about to spark a firestorm.
An Associated Press photo of Cash and Vivian ran in newspapers the next day—and to some readers, it appeared that Vivian, an Italian-American woman who was rarely photographed, was black.
Cash was harassed and boycotted by some Southern fans. “Johnny and I received death threats, and an already shameful situation was made infinitely worse,” recalled Vivian in her 2008 memoir.
In an October 1966 article, Variety described Cash as “the innocent victim of a targeted hate campaign in the south.” The “racial error,” wrote the anonymous author, had sparked boycotts and threats. “In the code of the south,” the article continued, “there is no greater crime than miscegenation.” At the time, interracial marriages were banned throughout the South.
|1601||The Treaty of Lyon ends a short war between France and Savoy.|
|1746||Charles Edward Stuart, the young pretender, defeats the government forces at the Battle of Falkirk in Scotland.|
|1773||Captain James Cook becomes the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle.|
|1819||Simon Bolivar, the “liberator”, proclaims Columbia a republic.|
|1893||Queen Liliuokalani, the Hawaiian monarch, is overthrown by a group of American sugar planters led by Sanford Ballard Dole.|
|1852||At the Sand River Convention, the British recognize the independence of the Transvaal Board.|
|1912||Robert Scott reaches the South Pole only a month after Roald Amundsen.|
|1939||The Reich issues an order forbidding Jews to practice as dentists, veterinarians and chemists.|
|1945||The Red Army occupies Warsaw.|
|1963||Soviet leader Khrushchev visits the Berlin Wall.|
|1985||A jury in New Jersey rules that terminally ill patients have the right to starve themselves.|