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|1719||Philip V of Spain declares war on France.|
|1776||Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense, a scathing attack on King George III’s reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence.|
|1792||The Ottomans sign a treaty with the Russians ending a five-year war.|
|1793||Jean Pierre Blanchard makes the first balloon flight in North America.|
|1861||Southern shellfire stops the Union supply ship Star of the West from entering Charleston Harbor on her way to Fort Sumter.|
|1861||Mississippi secedes from the Union.|
|1908||Count Zeppelin announces plans for his airship to carry 100 passengers.|
|1909||A Polar exploration team lead by Ernest Shackleton reaches 88 degrees, 23 minutes south longitude, 162 degrees east latitude. They are 97 nautical miles short of the South Pole, but the weather is too severe to continue.|
|1912||Colonel Theodore Roosevelt announces that he will run for president if asked.|
|1915||Pancho Villa signs a treaty with the United States, halting border conflicts.|
|1924||Ford Motor Co. stock is valued at nearly $1 billion.|
|1943||Soviet planes drop leaflets on the surrounded Germans in Stalingrad requesting their surrender with humane terms. The Germans refuse.|
|1945||U.S. troops land on Luzon, in the Philippines, 107 miles from Manila.|
|1947||French General Leclerc breaks off all talks with Vietnam’s Ho Chi Minh.|
|1952||Jackie Robinson becomes the highest paid player in Brooklyn Dodger history.|
|1964||U.S. forces kill six Panamanian students protesting in the canal zone.|
|1974||Cambodian Government troops open a drive to avert an insurgent attack on Phnom Penh.|
|1992||The Assembly of the Serb People in Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaims the creation of a new state within Yugoslavia, the Republika Srpska.|
|1996||A raid by Chechen separatists in the city of Kizlyar turns into a hostage crisis involving thousands of civilians.|
|2005||Mahmoud Abbas wins an election to replace Yasser Arafat as President of the Palestinian National Authority.|
|2005||The Comprehensive Peace Agreement to end the Second Sudanese Civil War is signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement.|
|2007||Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple, unveils the first iPhone.|
It wasn’t just the software that was revolutionary. Engelbart had also invented a new tracking device with the help of Bill English, an engineer on his team. As the small device rolled, a dot on the screen rolled along with it. “I don’t know why we call it a mouse,” Engelbart remarked. “Sometimes I apologize. It started that way and we never did change it.”The engineers were impressed, but since Engelbart's ideas were decades ahead (there weren't even personal computers at the time), they didn't understand how any of it related to their own work. Engelbart also suffered when thinking too far ahead, in that he had trouble communicating his ideas all through his life; otherwise, his name would be as well-known as Tim Berners-Lee, Bill Gates, or Steve Jobs. Read about Douglas Engelbart and his innovations at Smithsonian magazine.
Engelbart called his program the oN-Line System, or NLS. His larger goal, beyond any of the specific functions he’d introduced, was for people to collaborate. Toward the end of his presentation, he alluded to an “experimental network” that would allow different users to collaborate from as far away as Harvard and Stanford. He was describing the ARPANET, a program that was just starting to burgeon at the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPA) under the U.S. Department of Defense.
Engelbart expected his presentation to attract hundreds of engineers eager to join him in this new wave of computing. He had, after all, introduced word processing, document sharing, version control and hyperlinks, and he’d integrated text, graphics and video conferencing. He’d even foreshadowed the internet. He thought the audience members would line up afterwards to ask how they could join his network and help develop his ideas.
Instead, they gave him a standing ovation and then filed out of the auditorium.
Mr S. now recommended his removal to the hospital, and when there introduced a probang with threads passed through the bulb, the other ends being retained in the hand, trusting that if the bulb could be carried beyond the foreign body, it might be entangled by them, and thus removed. Nothing, however, was detected, and it was believed that it had found its way into the stomach,—an opinion which was rendered the more probable by the fact, that the difficult deglutition was by no means so great as previously.Yet his troubles were just beginning. Read the rest of the horrid story of the killer dentures at Thomas Morris.
He no longer had trouble swallowing, in other words.
Work by conservationists from North Carolina’s Department of Natural and Cultural Resources shows that Blackbeard and his crew got a kick out of reading “voyage narratives”—a popular form of literature in the late 17th and early 18th century that chronicled the true accounts of maritime expeditions. Specifically, Blackbeard kept a copy of Edward Cooke’s A Voyage to the South Sea, and Round the World, Perform’d in the Years 1708, 1709, 1710 and 1711, detailing the British naval officer’s participation in a global expedition aboard the ships Duke and Dutchess.Now we know there were books aboard Blackbeard's fleet, and that indicates that at least some of the crew were literate ...all from a few scraps of waterlogged trash. Read more about the find at Gizmodo.
The Crystal Palace Dinosaurs were the first dinosaur sculptures in the world, unveiled in 1854, before the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species. At at time when the theory of evolution was treated as a blasphemous joke, it was largely left to palaeontologists to fit dinosaur bones together like giant incomplete jigsaws. The rush to finish a specimen and name it before a rival did meant that there were many mistakes and inaccuracies. For example, when English palaeontologist Gideon Mantell discovered the Iguanadon, he placed the thumb spike of on the end of its nose, going unchallenged for many years until later skeletons revealed his mistake.The park is a lasting remnant of the Crystal Palace of the 1851 Great Exhibition. It was ridiculed for its inaccuracies, and fell into disrepair and overgrowth until a 1952 restoration. Read about the scientifically inaccurate but historically significant dinosaurs of Crystal Palace Park at Messy Nessy Chic.