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|1189||After the death of Henry II, Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England.|
|1260||Mamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeat Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.|
|1346||Edward III of England begins the siege of Calais, along the coast of France.|
|1650||The English under Cromwell defeat a superior Scottish army under David Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar.|
|1777||The American flag (stars & stripes), approved by Congress on June 14th, is carried into battle for the first time by a force under General William Maxwell.|
|1783||The Treaty of Paris is signed by Great Britain and the new United States, formally bringing the American Revolution to an end.|
|1838||Frederick Douglass escapes slavery disguised as a sailor. He would later write The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass, his memoirs about slave life.|
|1855||General William Harney defeats Little Thunder’s Brule Sioux at the Battle of Blue Water in Nebraska.|
|1895||The first professional American football game is played in Latrobe, Pennsylvania between the Latrobe Young Men’s Christian Association and the Jeannette Athletic Club. Latrobe wins 12-0.|
|1914||The French capital is moved from Paris to Bordeaux as the Battle of the Marne begins.|
|1916||The German Somme front is broken by an Allied offensive.|
|1918||The United States recognizes the nation of Czechoslovakia.|
|1939||After Germany ignores Great Britain’s ultimatum to stop the invasion of Poland, Great Britain declares war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe.|
|1939||The British passenger ship Athenia is sunk by a German submarine in the Atlantic, with 30 Americans among those killed. American Secretary of State Cordell Hull warns Americans to avoid travel to Europe unless absolutely necessary.|
|1943||British troops invade Italy, landing at Calabria.|
|1944||The U.S. Seventh Army captures Lyons, France.|
|1945||General Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Japanese commander of the Philippines, surrenders to Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright at Baguio.|
|1967||Lieutenant General Nguyen Van Thieu is elected president of South Vietnam.|
|1969||Ho Chi Minh, the leader of North Vietnam, dies.|
|1976||The unmanned US spacecraft Viking 2 lands on Mars, taking the first close-up, color photos of the planet’s surface.|
|1981||Egypt arrests some 1,500 opponents of the government.|
|1989||The US begins shipping military aircraft and weapons to Colombia for use against that country’s drug lords.|
|1994||Russia and China sign a demarcation agreement to end a dispute over a stretch of their border and agree they will no longer target each other with nuclear weapons.|
|2001||Protestant loyalists in Belfast, Ireland, begin an 11-week picket of the Holy Cross Catholic school for girls, sparking rioting.|
“Post-colonial collections is a big topic everywhere,” says Jane Milosch, the director of Smithsonian’s Provenance Research Initiative. “There can be a reassessment for certain objects of, ‘we may have legal ownership, but does it make sense to keep this material?’” She cites a 2014 case in which the British Museum returned two bronze statues from Benin to Nigeria (they were taken during an attack in 1897 after British officers were killed during a trade mission).So while art stolen during World War II and Egyptian tomb treasures are returned to their rightful owners, the Koh-i-Noor Diamond has a history of ownership changing hands by looting going back hundreds of years. Read the sordid history of the diamond and the controversy surrounding its ownership at Smithsonian.
But returning pillaged art and treasure from World War II, as complicated as that can be, is still far less complex than unraveling colonial history. “You’re dealing with countries that existed when the object was acquired, but they may not exist now—and countries who we had trade agreements with that may have different export laws now,” Milosch says. “Provenance is very complex and people aren’t used to processing a chain of ownership. By the time you hit the second or third owner over time, the information can get more difficult to research. This is why I say it’s important that these things not be yanked out of museums, because at least people have access and can study them until we know for sure if they were looted.”
“What this paper reinforces is that all of the humans that were around 50,000 to 150,000 years ago roughly, were culturally similar and equally capable of these levels of imagination, invention and technology,” explained Washington University anthropologist Erik Trinkaus, who wasn’t involved in the study, in an interview with Gizmodo. “Anthropologists have been confusing anatomy and behavior, making the inference that archaic anatomy equals archaic behavior, and ‘modern’ behavior [is equivalent to] modern human anatomy. What is emerging from the human fossil and Paleolithic archeological records across the Eurasia and Africa is that, at any one slice in time during this period, they were all doing—and capable of doing—basically the same things, whatever they looked like.”By the way, even the way Neanderthals looked has undergone a lot of revision since we first discovered their skeletons. Read more about the Neanderthal glue experiments at Gizmodo.
They sounds like the old ladies from Monty Python with the penguin on top of the television set.You can see that reference here.