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The place where the world comes together in honesty and mirth.
Windmills Tilted, Scared Cows Butchered, Lies Skewered on the Lance of Reality ... or something to that effect.

Sunday, May 12, 2013

The Daily Drift


Lake Louise, Canada by Jim Boud
 In case no one told you ... today is Mother's Day

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Today in History

254   St. Stephen I begins his reign as Catholic Pope.  
1588   King Henry III flees Paris after Henry of Guise triumphantly enters the city.  
1641   The chief advisor to Charles I, Thomas Wentworth, is beheaded in the Tower of London  
1780   Charleston, South Carolina falls to British forces.  
1851   The Tule River War ends.  
1863   With a victory at the Battle of Raymond, Mississippi, Union General Ulysses S. Grant closes in on Vicksburg.  
1864   Union General Benjamin Butler attacks Drewry's Bluff on the James River.  
1865   The last land battle of the Civil war occurs at Palmito Ranch, Texas. It is a Confederate victory.  
1881   Tunisia, in North Africa become a French protectorate.  
1885   In the Battle of Batoche, French Canadians rebel against the Canadian government.  
1926   The Airship Norge becomes the first vessel to fly over the North Pole.  
1932   The body of Charles Lindbergh's baby is found.  
1935   Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio by "Bill W.," a stockbroker, and "Dr. Bob S.," a heart surgeon.  
1940   The Nazi conquest of France begins with the crossing Muese River.  
1942   The Soviet Army launches its first major offensive of the war, taking Kharkov in the eastern Ukraine. 1943   Axis forces in North Africa surrender.  
1949   The Berlin Blockade ends. 1
969   Viet Cong sappers try unsuccessfully to overrun Landing Zone Snoopy in Vietnam.  
1975   The U.S. merchant ship Mayaguez is seized by Cambodian forces.

Non Sequitur


Iconic Moments In College Football History

College football is a huge draw in America, attracting stadium crowds in the tens of thousands as well as millions of TV viewers. Heightened inter-college rivalries and widely viewed, prestigious bowl games have earned college teams fans across the nation.

In the early part of the 20th century, college football became the most popular form of the game in the country. And despite the rise of the professional game, over the years, some incredible games and compelling moments have really stood out. These iconic photos capture 10 great occasions in college football history, including underdog wins, last-second touchdowns, outrageous plays, and crazy mistakes.

Did you know ...

That strange as it seems, happy workers lead to bigger profits

That you'll find Koch bros. money at the root of calls for armed rebellion against Obama

About the reason Americans aren't going as batshit crazy over Benghazi as the wingnuts

Hey, look out!  it's a hurricane on Saturn!

IRS apologizes for targeting tea party groups

Apologize, hell! 
They should be congratulated!
FILE - In this Aug. 2, 2012 file photo, Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Commissioner Douglas Shulman testifies on Capitol Hill in Washington, before the House Oversight Committee. The Internal Revenue Service inappropriately flagged conservative political groups for additional reviews during the 2012 election to see if they were violating their tax-exempt status, a top IRS official said Friday. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite) 
The Internal Revenue Service is apologizing for what it acknowledges was "inappropriate" targeting of wingnut political groups during the 2012 election to see if they were violating their tax-exempt status.
IRS agents singled out dozens of organizations for additional reviews because they included the words "tea party" or "patriot" in their exemption applications, Lois Lerner, who heads the IRS division that oversees tax-exempt groups, said Friday. In some cases, groups were asked for lists of donors, which violates IRS policy in most cases, she said.
The agency — led at the time by a shrub junta appointee — blamed low-level employees, saying no high-level officials were aware. But that wasn't good enough for repugicans in Congress, who are conducting several investigations and asked for more.
"I call on the White House to conduct a transparent, government-wide review aimed at assuring the American people that these thuggish practices are not under way at the IRS or elsewhere in the administration against anyone, regardless of their political views," said Senate repugican leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky.
White House spokesman Jay Carney declared it was indeed inappropriate for the IRS to target tea party groups. But he brushed aside questions about whether the White House itself would investigate.
Instead, Carney said the administration expects a thorough investigation by the Treasury Department's inspector general for tax administration. The inspector general has been looking into the issue since last summer, and his report is expected to come out next week, the IG's office said Friday.
Carney said he did not know when the White House first learned that tea party groups were being targeted.
Lerner acknowledged it was wrong for the agency to target groups based on political affiliation.
"That was absolutely incorrect, it was insensitive and it was inappropriate. That's not how we go about selecting cases for further review," Lerner said at a conference sponsored by the American Bar Association.
"The IRS would like to apologize for that," she added.
Lerner said the practice was initiated by low-level workers in Cincinnati and was not motivated by political bias. Agency officials found out about the practice last year and moved to correct it, the IRS said in a statement. The statement did not specify when officials found out.
About 75 groups were inappropriately targeted. None had their tax-exempt status revoked, Lerner said.
The IRS is an independent agency within the Treasury Department that enforces the nation's tax laws. Revelations that the agency was targeting political groups because they were affiliated with a movement that is critical of President Barack Obama could become a new headache for the White House.
"The admission by the Obama administration that the Internal Revenue Service targeted political opponents echoes some of the most shameful abuses of government power in 20th century American history," said House Speaker John Boehner, r-Ohio.
Many wingnut groups complained during the campaign that they were being harassed by the IRS. They accused the agency of frustrating their attempts to become tax exempt by sending them lengthy, intrusive questionnaires.
The forms, which the groups have made available, sought information about group members' political activities, including details of their postings on social networking websites and about family members.
IRS Commissioner Douglas Shulman told Congress in March 2012 that the IRS was not targeting groups based on politics.
"There's absolutely no targeting. This is the kind of back and forth that happens to people" who apply for tax-exempt status, Shulman told a House Ways and Means subcommittee.
The IRS said senior leaders were not aware that specific groups were being targeted at the time of the hearing.
"While we acknowledged centralization of these applications last year, the IRS did not acknowledge the use of names as part of the process earlier because the details were not initially known to senior leadership and (the inspector general) has been reviewing the situation," the IRS said in a statement. "Their work is now far enough along that it was appropriate to address the issue when it came up during (Friday's) tax conference."
Shulman was appointed by the shrub. His 6-year term ended in November. President Barack Obama has yet to nominate a successor. The agency is now being run by acting Commissioner Steven Miller.
Rep. Charles Boustany, r-La., chairman of the Ways and Means oversight subcommittee, requested a trove of documents from the IRS on Friday, including all communications containing the words "tea party" and "patriot."
House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Dave Camp, r-Mich., said Friday he will hold a hearing on the matter has not yet set a date.
"The IRS absolutely must be non-partisan in its enforcement of our tax laws," Camp said. "We will hold the IRS accountable for its actions."
House Majority Leader Eric Cantor, r-Va., and the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee have also promised investigations.
Treasury spokesman Anthony Coley said the department will support the inspector general's investigation.
"The Treasury Department expects all individuals and organizations to be treated fairly by the IRS. Anything less is inappropriate and unacceptable."
There has been a surge of politically active groups claiming tax-exempt status in recent elections — wingnut and liberal. Among the highest profile are repugican Karl Rove's group, Crossroads GPS, and the liberal Moveon.org.
These groups claim tax-exempt status under section 501 (c) (4) of the federal tax code, which is for social welfare groups. Unlike other charitable groups, these organizations are allowed to participate in political activities but their primary activity must be social welfare.
That determination is up to the IRS.
Lerner said the number of groups filing for this tax-exempt status more than doubled from 2010 to 2012, to more than 3,400. To handle the influx, the IRS centralized its review of these applications in an office in Cincinnati.
Lerner said this was done to develop expertise among staffers and consistency in their reviews. As part of the review, staffers look for signs that groups are participating in political activity. If so, IRS agents take a closer look to make sure that politics isn't the group's primary activity.
As part of this process, agents in Cincinnati came up with a list of things to look for in an application. As part of the list, they included the words, "tea party" and "patriot," Lerner said.
"It's the line people that did it without talking to managers," Lerner told The AP. "They're IRS workers, they're revenue agents."
In all, about 300 groups were singled out for additional review, Lerner said. Of those, about a quarter were singled out because they had "tea party" or "patriot" somewhere in their applications.
The IRS statement said that once applications were chosen for review, they all "received the same, even-handed treatment."
Lerner said 150 of the cases have been closed and no group had its tax-exempt status revoked, though some withdrew their applications.
"Mistakes were made initially, but they were in no way due to any political or partisan rationale," the IRS said in a statement. "We fixed the situation last year and have made significant progress in moving the centralized cases through our system."
"I don't think there's any question we were unfairly targeted," said Tom Zawistowski, who until recently was president of the Ohio Liberty Coalition, an alliance of tea party groups in the state.
Zawistowski's group was among many wingnut organizations that battled the IRS over what they saw as discriminatory treatment. The group first applied for nonprofit status in June 2009, and it was finally granted on Dec. 7, 2012, he said — one month after Election Day.
"It is suspicious that the activity of these 'low-level workers' was unknown to IRS leadership at the time it occurred," said Jenny Beth Martin, national coordinator for tea party patriots, which describes itself as the nation's largest tea party organization. "President Obama must also apologize for his administration ignoring repeated complaints by these broad grass-roots organizations of harassment by the IRS in 2012, and make concrete and transparent steps today to ensure this never happens again."

Boycott Crushes Lush

48 of Top 50 Advertisers Have Asked Not To be Aired on Dimbulb
Cumulus Media has leaked a statement to the media that proves the impact of the advertiser boycott, as 48 of their top 50 advertisers have asked that they not be included on Lush Dimbulb and Sean Handjob’s shows.
Cumulus Media pushed back against Lush Dimbulb’s claim that he is not responsible for the decline in advertising revenue by leaking an anonymous statement to Radio Ink,
Forty-eight of the top 50 network advertisers have “excluded Lush and Handjob” orders. Every major national ad agency has the same dictate.” That’s a stat Premiere Radio flat out denied. “That statement is completely inaccurate. A number of the top spenders in the medium use talk radio to promote their brands and sell product, and many of them use The Lush Dimbulb Show and The Sean Handjob Show as the driving force of their marketing efforts.
Dimbulb is in total denial. He is completely responsible for at least part of the decline in ad revenue. His statements about Sandra Fluke have triggered an ongoing boycott that has cost Cumulus and Dimbulb millions of dollars. When 48 of a network’s top 50 advertisers don’t want their ads on his show, Dimbulb is losing money.
The speculation is that Clear Channel is waiting to dive in and scoop up Lush after his Cumulus contract expires, but they would wise to look at the situation carefully before they paid Dimbulb the kind of money that he will certainly demand. Clear Channel will not only be buying Dimbulb, but also all of his baggage, and the boycott too.
A positive unintended consequence of the Dimbulb boycott is that it is hitting Sean Handjob too. The goal of these advertiser boycotts has always been to hold them accountable for where they choose to spend their ad dollars. The Dimbulb boycott is sending a message to all of wingnut hate speech radio that there will be financial consequences for their extremist speech.
Handjob and Dimbulb have a right to say whatever they want, but consumers also have a right to take their spending elsewhere if advertisers insist on bankrolling hate speech.
The boycotters are winning, and the boycott is going to follow Lush Dimbulb everywhere he goes. Dimbulb has always been damaged goods - now everyone knows it, and I suspect that anyone foolish enough to give him the kind of payday that he wants is throwing their money away.

The truth be told

Forcing your employees to do dumb Scientology exercises creates a "hostile work environment"

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has filed a lawsuit against Dr. Dennis Nobbe's Dynamic Medical Services, Inc, where employees were made to engage in bizarre Scientology rituals as a condition of employment. The EEOC says that this violated employees' freedom of religion, and they're suing Dr Nobbe to prove it. This is the downside of the Church of Scientology's dodge of getting itself certified as a "religion," a practice that otherwise grants it enormous privileges, including preferential tax-treatment. But once your woo-woo exercises are officially "religious rituals," then forcing someone to engage in them violates freedom of religion rules:
According to the EEOC's suit, the company required Norma Rodriguez, Maykel Ruz, Rommy Sanchez, Yanileydis Capote and other employees to spend at least half their work days in courses that involved Scientology religious practices, such as screaming at ashtrays or staring at someone for eight hours without moving. The company also instructed employees to attend courses at the Church of Scientology. Additionally, the company required Sanchez to undergo an "audit" by connecting herself to an "E-meter," which Scientologists believe is a religious artifact, and required her to undergo "purification" treatment at the Church of Scientology. According to the EEOC's suit, employees repeatedly asked not to attend the courses but were told it was a requirement of the job. In the cases of Rodriguez and Sanchez, when they refused to participate in Scientology religious practices and/or did not conform to Scientology religious beliefs, they were terminated.
Requiring employees to conform to religious practices and beliefs espoused by the employer, creating a hostile work environment, and failing to reasonably accommodate the religious beliefs of an employee all violate Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

The sad truth is ...

Guantanamo detention facility = $900,000 per year. Per inmate.

As reported by Reuters, via MSN:
The Pentagon estimates it spends about $150 million each year to operate the prison and military court system at the U.S. Naval Base in Cuba, which was set up 11 years ago to house foreign terrorism suspects. With 166 inmates currently in custody, that amounts to an annual cost of $903,614 per prisoner.

By comparison, super-maximum security prisons in the United States spend about $60,000 to $70,000 at most to house their inmates, analysts say. And the average cost across all federal prisons is about $30,000, they say...

The huge cost of running the prison and judicial complex stem from its offshore location at a 45-square-mile U.S. Naval Base on the southeastern coast of Cuba. Because ties between the two countries are almost nonexistent, almost everything for the facilities has to be ferried in from outside.

When the military tribunals are in session, everyone from judges and lawyers to observers and media have to fly into Guantanamo on military aircraft. Food, construction materials and other goods are shipped in from outside, experts say.

But despite the high cost of the camp, and despite the fact that Republicans traditionally demand belt-tightening by the federal government, a Republican aide with the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee said there was little point in asking if the price was worth it because "there isn't an alternative at the moment."..

Among current inmates, nine have been charged with crimes or convicted, 24 are considered eligible for possible prosecution, 86 have been cleared for transfer or release and 47 are considered too dangerous for release but are not facing prosecution. ..

General John Kelly, the head of Southern Command, which is responsible for Guantanamo, told a House of Representatives panel in March that he needed some $170 million to improve the facilities for troops stationed at the base as part of detention operations. Kelly said the living conditions were "pretty questionable" and told the panel, "We need to take care of our troops."
Your tax money at work.

ATM hack nets $45M in hours

The US District Attorney for the Eastern District of New York has indicted eight residents of Yonkers for allegedly participating in a global ATM heist that involved removing the withdrawal limits on prepaid debit cards, cloning them, and then getting confederates all over the world to hit ATMs at the same time and clean them out. The DA says that the scam netted $45M worldwide; $400K in NYC alone. One of the indicted defendants was murdered in the Dominican Republic last month.
The first heist, which occurred on December 22 and targeted debit cards issued by the UAE bank, dispatched carders in about 20 countries that rapidly withdrew funds in more than 4,500 ATM transactions. In New York City alone, prosecutors said, the defendants and their co-conspirators withdrew almost $400,000 in some 750 fraudulent transactions from more than 140 different ATM locations. It took just two hours and 25 minutes for the New York cell to complete, prosecutors said. A second operation commenced on February 19 withdrew about $40 million in 36,000 transactions worldwide. In just 10 hours, the New York group allegedly withdrew about $2.4 million in almost 3,000 ATM transactions.
The operation exploited weaknesses in the way banks and payment processors handle prepaid debit cards, which usually are loaded with a finite amount of funds. These cards are often used by employers in place of paychecks and by charitable organizations to distribute disaster assistance. Once the accounts were hacked and the limits removed from accounts, cards were cloned and sent to cell groups throughout the world to make fraudulent withdrawals. Additional details of the operation are available in a press release outlining the charges.
A similar heist in 2011 got $13M in one night.

Your State's Highest-Paid Employee

State governments have a lot of people on the payroll. There are legislators, judges, social workers, inspectors, police, and the educational system, from elementary school to state universities. Deadspin looked at the records and determined the highest-paid employee on each state's public payroll.
Based on data drawn from media reports and state salary databases, the ranks of the highest-paid active public employees include 27 football coaches, 13 basketball coaches, one hockey coach, and 10 dorks who aren't even in charge of a team.
Those "10 dorks" are also university employees: chancellors, presidents, or deans (and then there's Nevada). At the link, you'll find more information about where the money for the coaches comes from, and where it might otherwise go. More  

Theory and Reality

Diagnosed with Autism at the Age of 2, This 14-Year Old Boy Was Told That He Would Never Learn to Read. Now He's a Graduate Student in Quantum Physics.

BBCTherapists didn't think much of Jacob Barnett's future. But his mother saw him demonstrate a prodigious memory, pattern recognition skills and an intuitive grasp of astrophysics:
One day, his mom took him stargazing. A few months later, they visited a planetarium where a professor was giving a lecture. Whenever the teacher asked questions, Jacob’s little hand shot up and he began to answer questions — easily understanding complicated theories about physics and the movement of planets.

Jacob was just 3-1/2 years old.
His mom realized that Jacob might need something that the standard special education curriculum just wasn’t giving him.
So Kristine decided to take on the job herself.
Now that's good parenting.

A 4th Grade science quiz from a creationist school

And you wonder why kids are so stupid ...
Snopes has confirmed that a purported 4th Grade creationist school science test, making its way around the Web, is in fact real, and comes from a South Carolina christian school.
And it’s quite horrifying.
In the test, we learn that the earth is not billions of years old.  Dinosaurs did not live millions of years ago, but rather lived alongside man, and that God made dinosaurs on the sixth day.
(I’d reported earlier on the voucher school history book that teaches that hippies didn’t bathe and worshipped Satan.)
My favorite part of the test, however, is what comes at the very end of it, at the bottom of page 2:
Good luck with that answer on your SATs.
PS Harpocrates Speaks has a fun twist on the quiz.

Mental Baggage

Abandoned Suitcases From an Insane Asylum
Having lain forgotten in an attic for years, and filled with the treasured possessions of an insane asylum’s patients, these suitcases have poignant stories to tell. More

New York Guarded By Superheroes

As the Sun sets in New York City, a group of real life superheroes takes to the streets. These costumed crime fighters go by names of Dark Guardian, Spyder, Spector, and Snipe.  They patrol the gritty streets with hybrid skateboard / shields, in search of danger.
When they are out at night searching the subways and scaling walls, looking for trouble, the superheroes protect themselves with non-traditional body armor made from plastic and metal. 
The group is called New York Initiative and they take their commitment to doing good very seriously. 
CBS New York has more: Here.

How Sesame Street Got Its Name

vThe Childrens Television Workshop worked on a new show for a long time to ensure its quality before putting it on the air in 1969. Everything was finally in place, except the show still didn't have a name. A promo sketch shows Muppets mulling over possible titles, but the actual story was more frantic.
The name Sesame Street was not dreamed up by Muppets in a boardroom but the promo sketch does reference the dilemma the Workshop had in finding a name for the show. As producer Jon Stone remembers, “the name was set at the 11th hour and fifty ninth minute.” Early promotional materials simply referred to the show as a “preschool educational television show.” In early spring of 1969, the press conference announcing the show neared and producers had still not made a decision. “We were just frantic for a title,” said Joan Ganz Cooney. “Our press and publicity people were going nuts. How were they going to promote a show that had no name?”
But they managed to come up with the perfect name. Read what happened at the Sesame Workshop blog. More

The truth hurts

Prehistoric Moms Had Their Hands Full

Mother's Day as a holiday is only 105 years old, but moms on the human family tree date back to at least 58 million years ago.

The Elephant’s Tomb in Carmona may have been a temple to the god Mithras

The so-called Elephant’s Tomb in the Roman necropolis of Carmona (Seville, Spain) was not always used for burials. The original structure of the building and a window through which the sun shines directly in the [...]

Random Photo


Beautiful Bar Refaeli <3

When Earth Is Scarred Forever

Our planet is covered in pockmarks so deep that they can be seen from space. Some were caused by asteroid strikes, but most are the result of human meddling. Here are some of the most incredible examples of the scarred Earth.

Geologists study mystery of ‘eternal flames’

“Eternal flames” fueled by hydrocarbon gas could shine a light on the presence of natural gas in underground rock layers and conditions that let it seep to the surface, according to research by geologists at [...]

Awesome Pictures


Overlook at Dead Horse Point, Moab, Utah by Guy Schmickle

Alligator Helps Nab Fleeing Suspect

Florida criminals beware. Alligators appear to be on the side of local law enforcement.
Twenty-year-old Bryan Zuniga fled during a routine traffic stop. While attempting to elude police he was attacked by an alligator.
A few hours later, he was found at a local hospital and was being treated for puncture wounds to his face, arm, and armpit area, the sheriff's office said. He told authorities about the gator attack.
NBC6 has more:Here.

Indian villagers rescue baby elephant from ditch

In a heartwarming incident, local residents in northeast India rescued an elephant calf on Monday after she fell in a ditch.

According to the locals, the baby elephant lagged behind from its herd and fell in the ditch, filled with water. Responding to the cries of the calf, two elephants from the herd rushed towards to ditch and made several attempts to rescue the calf, but in vain.

The incident occurred in Amolighat district of India's northeastern Assam state. Locals quickly gathered, who first fired some gun shots in the air to disperse the two elephants. A group of over 20 locals then rushed to the aid of the calf and using ropes they pulled her clear from the ditch.

Local resident Shyam Baruwa, said: "All the villagers came together to pull this elephant calf out of the ditch. She was in a bad condition and we could not bear the sight of a baby dying in that ditch and that is why we rushed to pull her from the ditch." The calf was transported to the nearby Kaziranga national park for medical treatment.

Poison Dart Frogs

50 Shades of Prey  
Why don't all poison dart frogs look the same?
Nothing says "STAY AWAY!" to a predator like a tasty-looking creature that's a little too flashy. Bright colors and crazy patterns are nature's skull and crossbones, a warning to the carnivorous to look elsewhere for meals. Toxic animals usually have uniform markings: Each member of a species looks the same. Monarch butterflies bear the same patterns; puffer fish all puff up in the same way. But there's one animal that ignores this advice completely: the poison dart frog. These deadly amphibians have developed endless combinations of shades and markings, making it a challenge for hungry birds and snakes to keep track of their patterns. If the idea of being visibly toxic is to be as obvious as possible, why would a single species of frog maintain such an extensive wardrobe? That's the question that had Mathieu Chouteau sweating in the Peruvian Amazon as fastened 1,800 clay frogs to rainforest leaves.
Back in 2009, Chouteau, a biologist from the University of Montreal, became obsessed with this evolutionary puzzle. "For the longest time, I've been fascinated by the phenomenon of local adaptation," he says. But because the varieties of poison dart frog patterns are so many and, more importantly, occur so geographically close to one another, they struck Chouteau as particularly odd. He wondered whether different types of local predators were somehow responsible for the variations.
With the help of a patient girlfriend, fellow biologist Melanie McClure, he was able to test his theory. For an entire month, Chouteau and McClure spent four to six hours a day molding and hand painting nearly 2,000 clay frogs. Before long, it looked like an invasive species had taken over the couple's home. In his experiment, Chouteau focused on two patterns. Some of his frogs were painted to look like a group from the Peruvian highlands: black and splashed with bright green blotches. The other mimicked the pattern on a group of lowland frogs living six miles away: black with yellow stripes.
In the field, the variety is even more astonishing. Some poison dart frogs are striped with bands of black and gold, like the business end of a bumblebee. Some are spotted. Some are speckled. Some are neon yellow all over. But all of them are easy to spot, glittering like gems on leaves and branches. They're also dangerous. Each frog is packed with toxic alkaloids that wreak havoc on cell communication and lead to fibrillation, arrhythmia, cardiac failure, or death. A few varieties are so poisonous that indigenous tribesmen use them to give their blowgun darts extra stopping power.

As soon as the paint on Chouteau's models had dried, he packed up his decoy frogs and headed to the Amazon for the next painstaking task: Using toothpicks, he pinned the clay hors d'ouvres to low-hanging leaves in both highland and lowland locations, It took days.
When Chouteau returned to check on his frogs, he found that some of the models had been marred by beaks, talons, and fangs. He continued to check in for the next three days. In that time, some frogs had been ripped clean in half or disappeared altogether.  But many remained intact. It all depended on which frogs were in which locations. In each zone, the predators -mostly birds, snakes, and spiders- had gone after the foreign-looking frogs almost four times more than the ones that sported familiar patterns. The trend became clear: Local predators steered clear of local frogs, but they were willing to taste the ones they didn't recognize. Chouteau's work showed that the frog's color variety wasn't some great evolutionary plan. The frogs that local predators learned to avoid -the ones that ended up populating and flourishing in a particular area- weren't smarter, faster, or better-looking. They were just lucky enough to be wearing the right spots in the right spot.

Animal Pictures


A close view of a male lion photographed with a flashlight at night in Africa, May 1910.Photograph by A. Dugmore, National Geographic
A close view of a male lion photographed with a flashlight at night in Africa, May 1910. 
Photograph by A. Dugmore, National Geographic