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|1303||The War of the Vespers in Sicily ends with an agreement between Charles of Valois, who invaded the country, and Frederick, the ruler of Sicily.|
|1756||The British at Fort William Henry, New York, surrender to Louis Montcalm of France.|
|1802||Captain Meriwether Lewis leaves Pittsburgh to meet up with Captain William Clark and begin their trek to the Pacific Ocean.|
|1864||At the Democratic convention in Chicago, General George B. McClellan is nominated for president.|
|1919||The Communist Labor Party is founded in Chicago, with the motto, “Workers of the world unite!”|
|1940||Joseph Avenol steps down as Secretary-General of the League of Nations.|
|1942||The British army under General Bernard Law Montgomery defeats Field Marshal Erwin Rommel’s Afrika Korps in the Battle of Alam el Halfa in Egypt.|
|1944||The British Eighth Army penetrates the German Gothic Line in Italy.|
|1949||Six of the 16 surviving Union veterans of the Civil War attend the last-ever encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic, held in Indianapolis, Indiana.|
|1951||The 1st Marine Division begins its attack on Bloody Ridge in Korea. The four-day battle results in 2,700 Marine casualties.|
|1961||A concrete wall replaces the barbed wire fence that separates East and West Germany. It will be called the Berlin Wall.|
|1965||The US Congress creates the Department of Housing & Urban Development.|
|1980||The Polish government is forced to sign the Gdansk Agreement allowing the creation of the trade union Solidarity.|
|1990||East and West Germany sign the Treaty of Unification (Einigungsvertrag) to join their legal and political systems.|
|1994||The last Russian troops leave Estonia and Latvia.|
|1994||The Irish Republican Army (IRA) announces a “complete cessation of military operations,” opening the way to a political settlement in Ireland for the first time in a quarter of a century.|
When an equipment manufacturing company inexplicably showed up at their plant to demonstrate a prune sorter, Nephi and his plant superintendent Slim Burton chatted with them about a redesign. Could the barrel be redesigned so that it would eliminate the unwanted pieces of potatoes from the very wanted french fries? It could.You can see where this is going. It was those little scraps left over from making french fries that ended up in Tater Tots. Read the rest of the story of how Tater Tots were developed at Eater.
This being the northwest, and with the Grigg brothers’ company surrounded by farmland, Nephi decided that the scraps would go to feed the cattle and other livestock owned by the Grigg family. This was fine for a while, until Nephi realized that these cattle were getting enormous amounts of potato product. He was an entrepreneur, goddammit, and not one to waste anything, especially “product that has been purchased from the grower, stored for months, gone thru the peeling process, gone thru the specking lines and trimmed of all the defects, only to be eliminated into the cattle feed,” as Nephi wrote in a letter to an Ore-Ida representative in 1989.
|1721||The Peace of Nystad ends the Second Northern War between Sweden and Russia, giving Russia considerably more power in the Baltic region.|
|1781||The French fleet arrives in the Chesapeake Bay to aid the American Revolution.|
|1813||Creek Indians massacre over 500 whites at Fort Mims, Alabama.|
|1861||Union General John Fremont declares martial law throughout Missouri and makes his own emancipation proclamation to free slaves in the state. Lincoln overrules the general.|
|1932||Nazi leader Hermann Goering is elected president of the Reichstag.|
|1944||Ploesti, the center of the Rumanian oil industry, falls to Soviet troops.|
|1963||A Hot Line communications link is installed between Moscow and Washington, DC.|
|1967||The US Senate confirms Thurgood Marshall as the first African-American Supreme Court justice.|
|1982||Yasser Arafat, leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) is forced out of Lebanon after 10 years in Beirut during the Lebanese Civil War.|
|1983||Lieutenant Colonel Guion S. Bluford, Jr., becomes the first African-American astronaut to travel in space.|
|1986||The KGB arrests journalist Nicholas Daniloff (US News World Report) on a charge of spying and hold him for 13 days.|
Despite his destitution, Van Gogh spent whatever money he had on two beds, which he set up in the same small bedroom. Seeking to make his modest sleeping quarters “as nice as possible, like a woman’s boudoir, really artistic,” he resolved to paint a set of giant yellow sunflowers onto its white walls. He wrote beseeching letters to Gauguin, and when the French artist sent him a self-portrait as part of their exchange of canvases, Van Gogh excitedly showed it around town as the likeness of a beloved friend who was about to come visit.During that time, Gauguin saw Van Gogh descend into his mental illness. Things came to a head two days before Christmas, when Gauguin went to a hotel for the night. Gauguin had escaped being cut by a razor by Van Gogh, who instead went home and cut off his own ear. Read Gauguin's account of that night and the aftermath, from the book Paul Gauguin’s Intimate Journals, at Brain Pickings.
Gauguin finally agreed and arrived in Arles in mid-October, where he was to spend about two months, culminating with the dramatic ear incident.
|70||The Temple of Jerusalem burns after a nine-month Roman siege.|
|1526||Ottoman Suleiman the Magnificent crushes a Hungarian army under Lewis II at the Battle of Mohacs.|
|1533||In Peru, the Inca chief Atahualpa is executed by orders of Francisco Pizarro, although the chief had already paid his ransom.|
|1776||General George Washington retreats during the night from Long Island to New York City.|
|1862||Union General John Pope‘s army is defeated by a smaller Confederate force at the Second Battle of Bull Run.|
|1942||The American Red Cross announces that Japan has refused to allow safe conduct for the passage of ships with supplies for American prisoners of war.|
|1945||U.S. airborne troops are landed in transport planes at Atsugi airfield, southwest of Tokyo, beginning the occupation of Japan.|
|1949||The USSR explodes its first atomic bomb, “First Lightning.”|
|1952||In the largest bombing raid of the Korean War, 1,403 planes of the Far East Air Force bomb Pyongyang, North Korea.|
|1957||The US Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1957 after Strom Thurmond (r-SC) ends a 24-hour filibuster, the longest in Senate history, against the bill.|
|1960||A US U-2 spy plane spots SAM (surface-to-air) missile launch pads in Cuba.|
|1965||Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. and Charles “Pete” Conrad Jr complete 120 Earth orbits in Gemini 5, marking the first time the US set an international duration record for a manned space mission.|
|1986||Morocco’s King Hassan II signs a unity treaty with Libya’s Muammar Gaddafi, strengthening political and economic ties and creating a mutual defense pact.|
|1991||The USSR’s parliament suspends Communist Party activities in the wake of a failed coup.|
|1995||NATO launches Operation Deliberate Force against Bosnian Serb forces.|
|2003||A terrorist bomb kills Ayatollah Sayed Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, the Shia Muslim leader in Iraq, and nearly 100 worshipers as they leave a mosque in Najaf where the ayatollah had called for Iraqi unity.|
|2012||The Egyptian Army’s Operation Eagle results in the deaths of 11 suspected terrorists and the arrest of another 23.|
Lillian produced a campaign showing an agitated guest spilling a cup of coffee over the table cloth, with the caption ‘Has This Ever Happened To You?’ The ad swiftly sold the 1,000 copies of Holt’s encyclopedia, but they were just as quickly returned, readers finding the tone too old fashioned.Lillian Eichler's Book of Etiquette was not stuffy, and addressed social manners from the viewpoint of a modern young woman, one like herself, who made her own way in life yet wanted to impress friends and family, bosses, and suitors. The book and several others made her a millionaire. Read the story of Lillian Eichler, and see pages from her books at Messy Messy Chic.
Doubleday hit upon the idea of having this fusty book filled with Victorian social dilemmas, being re-written and modernized. And who better to put a Jazz Age spin, than the copywriting prodigy that had created the ad.
“My mother was asked to rewrite this out of date book to make it more appropriate for the time”, recalls Anita Weinstein, Lillian’s daughter. “She was a very ambitious young woman. She was very proud that she was one of the very few women who would drive over the bridge [from Queens] to work in the city.” Astonishingly for 1922, the young copywriter not only re-wrote the book on etiquette, but dreamt up the ad campaign to sell it as well.
5. Completely dry your meats before cooking them.
Whether it's roasted chicken or seared scallops, drying them ensures you'll get a crisp, golden skin that won't stick to the pan. Pat them dry with paper towels or let them air-dry in the cooler for a few hours before cooking them.
6. For maximum flavor, toast your nuts and spices.
Toasting nuts and spices brings out their flavors and takes your cooking to a whole new level. For spices, give them a quick toasting in a dry pan over low heat or bloom them in hot oil. For nuts, toast them in a 350° F oven for 10-15 minutes before cooking with them.