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|495||Pope Gelasius asserts that his authority is superior to Emperor Anastasius.|
|1568||French forces in Florida slaughter hundreds of Spanish.|
|1855||Macon B. Allen becomes the first African American to be admitted to the Bar in Massachusetts.|
|1859||France declares war on Austria.|
|1863||The Battle of Chancellorsville rages for a second day.|
|1865||Lincoln‘s funeral train arrives in Springfield, Illinois.|
|1926||U.S. Marines land in Nicaragua.|
|1952||The first airplane lands at the geographic North Pole.|
|1968||After three days of battle, the U.S. Marines retake Dai Do complex in Vietnam, only to find the North Vietnamese have evacuated the area.|
|1971||James Earl Ray, Martin Luther King Jr.‘s assassin, is caught in a jail break attempt.|
|1979||Margaret Thatcher becomes the first woman prime minister of Great Britain.|
|1982||A British submarine sinks Argentina’s only cruiser during the Falkland Islands War.|
As the machines were finished, they were christened with names such as Kyngstone, Belfry, Segrave, Toulemonde, Gloucester, and Lincoln. Edward called the biggest of all "Loup–de-guerre," which is French for "wolf of war". A French name for an English king's war engine is not surprising, since English kings spoke French, not English, until a century later. But a name such as Loup-de-guerre would have been quite a mouthful for English speaking soldiers. Soon the big catapult's moniker was bowdlerized into the much more Anglo-Saxony "Ludgar."The Scots wanted to surrender, but by then, Edward had invested so much time and treasure into his trebuchets that he was gleefully looking forward to using them. Read the story of Ludgar and the other war machines at Popular Mechanics. Bonus: story contains trebuchet videos.
Ludgar and his fellow hurling machines threw boulders, but the historical records point to English forces employing more imaginative ammo, too. In fact, this battle might have been the first in England to employ gunpowder-like munitions. The official documents of the time show that Edward sent a letter to his treasurer and the barons of the exchequer "firmly enjoining you with haste to provide a horse load of cotton, quick sulfur and saltpeter… for casting fire into the castle."
Jamaica’s famous clothing-optional resort, Hedonism II, is not your average getaway. This adults-only, all-inclusive beachfront property serves as a judgement-free haven where guests can feel comfortable letting go and pursuing pleasure. Hedonism fosters a sensual carefree atmosphere that encourages you to bring your fantasies to life. Skinny dipping is allowed here, in fact, it’s encouraged! Jamaica’s clear turquoise waters offer an unforgettable aquatic playground. Explore a whole new underwater world with nude scuba diving and snorkeling excursions available. All tapped out? Refuel with the delicious, fresh baked Jamaican patties or schedule a relaxing massage on the beach.The other vacation getaways on the list are somewhat less adventurous, offering adult activities such as shopping, gambling, and cooking lessons. Check them all out at Money Inc.
As a collaborative research team from the American Museum of Natural History and Gettysburg College revealed, the green alga Oophila amblystomatis makes its home inside of cells located across the body of the spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum. The salamander doesn’t appear to be negatively affected by its microbial roommates, and in fact the amphibian may even be benefiting from this arrangement. The normally photosynthetic green algae, on the other hand, are completely stressed out, forced rely on an alternative means of energy production.The algae was spotted before in the eggs of the salamander, which benefits both, but now it appears that the algae stay with the animal into adulthood. As it appears the relationship is either benign or one-sided, it opens up more questions to be studied. Read about this new discovery at Gizmodo.
The finding is so strange and so unexpected that the scientists involved in the study aren’t sure why this relationship evolved in the first place, or how each creature might be benefiting.